Photo Credits and Sources Cited

ACMP Multimedia Presentations by Scientists & Native Elders: Photos

  • Wales resident by sea ice, still shot from "Wales, Alaska: Survival in a Changing Climate," produced by students of Wales Kingikmiut School
  • Polar bear photo courtesy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.
  • Scientists and snow machines photo courtesy Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
  • Lightning photo courtesy of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Permafrost patterned ground photo by Anthonares.
  • Low pressure system photo courtesy NASA.
  • Trees and sky photo courtesy of the US Department of Agriculture.
  • Permafrost polygon photo courtesy of the US Geological Survey.
  • Walrus photo courtesy of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Satellite illustration courtesy NASA.
  • Weather balloon photo courtesy of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Anemometer photo courtesy of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Sunset photo from Art Explosion Image Library catalog.
  • Antarctic mountain photo by Hannes Grobe, Alfred Wegener Institute.
  • Boat stock image from Art Explosion Image Library catalog.
  • Basketball hoop photo by sof, Toronto Canada.
  • Coin stock image from Art Explosion Image Library catalog.
  • Cloud photo by Piccolo Namek.
  • Ice wedge formation, still shot from "Tunnel Man," courtesy Kenji Yoshikawa
  • Permafrost tour still shot courtesy Kenji Yoshikawa
  • Borehole drilling still shot courtesy Kenji Yoshikawa

Interactive Climate DVD

SOURCES CITED:

DVD copyright 2007, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute. All rights reserved. For more information, contact the UAF Geophysical Institute Public Information and Education Outreach Office, (907) 474-7558, or at acmp@gi.alaska.edu.

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS
Syun-Ichi Akasofu, IARC, UAF, USA
Kathryn Bertram, Geophysical Institute, UAF, USA

GRAPHIC DESIGN
Deborah Manning, Geophysical Institute, UAF, USA

MULTIMEDIA DESIGN AND COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
Eric Muehling, Geophysical Institute, UAF, USA

ALASKA NATIVE LANGUAGE TRANSLATION
Central Yupik: Minnie Aluska (Stebbins), Mary Raymond (Stebbins) and Luci Washington (Saint Michael).
Inupiaq: Georgianne Anasogak (Koyuk) and Ida Murray (Elim).
Siberian Yupik: Zlma E. Nowpakahok (Gambell) and Richard Waghiyi (Savoonga).

INITIAL CONTENT RESEARCH AND OUTLINE
Keiko Akasofu, Geophysical Institute, UAF, USA

PUBLICATION RESOURCE
Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. 2005 United States: Cambridge University Press.

WEBSITE
www.ArcticClimateModeling.org

FUNDING
Funding for this project comes in part from the International Arctic Research Center at the University of Alaska Fairbanks through support from the National Science Foundation under Agreement No. ARC-0327664. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

ACCREDITATION AND AA/EO STATEMENT
The University of Alaska Fairbanks(TM) is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Northwest Association of School and Colleges. The University of Alaska Fairbanks is an AA/EO employer and educational institution and prohibits illegal discrimination against any individual: Learn more about UA's notice of nondiscrimination.<>

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CONTRIBUTORS

We would like to express our deepest appreciation to the following researchers and staff
for their time and involvement in this project.

Norbert Aujoulat, National Center of Prehistory in France, Director
Alan Batten, UAF, UA Museum Herbarium
Dr. Uma Bhatt, UAF, Frontier Atmosphere/Ocean/Ice Physics group computer modeling
Rusty Lotti Bond, Columbia University, Earth Institute
Dr. Julie Brigham-Grette, UMass Amherst, Paleoclimatology
Dr. David S. Buchanan, Oklahoma State University, Professor of Animal Science
Dr. Terry Chapin, UAF, Ecological, cultural, and economic processes
Dr. Richard Collins, UAF, Space Physics Group
Terry Dickey, UAF, UA Museum
Dr. R. Dale Guthrie, UAF retired, Zoology, Pleistocene mammals
Henriette Kress, Finland, Europe, henriettesherbal.com, Herbal information.
Dr. Craig Lingle, UAF, Geophysics
Dr. Anatoly V. Lozhkin, Russian Academy of Science, Interdisciplinary
Dr. William F. Manley, University of Colorado, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research
Dr. Kenneth Sassen, UAF, Professor of Atmospheric Sciences
Dr. Glenn Shaw, UAF, Professor of Physics
Dennis Trabant, USGS Glaciology
Judie Triplehorn, UAF, IARC Mather Library
Dr. John M. "Mike" Wallace, University of Washington, Atmospheric Sciences
Dr. John Walsh, UAF, International Arctic Research Center
Dr. Gunter Weller, UAF, Professor of Physics
Dr. Gerd Wendler, Alaska Climate Research Center
Gerry Willomitzer, Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Unit 1 -- Earth's Weather

Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment
Windows to the Universe team. The Thermosphere. Boulder, CO: (C)2000-01 University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR), (C)1995-1999, 2000 The Regents of the University of Michigan, Date of last modification for that page. Online. Available:http://www.windows.ucar.edu . 10/14/02.
"Noctilucent Clouds", Laboratory for atmospheric and space physics page, University of Colorado at Boulder, [http://lasp.colorado.edu/], [10/14/02]
"Atmospheric layers", Encyclopaedia of the Atmospheric Environment Web site, [http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/eae/english.htm l], [10/8/02]
"Cloud Types: common cloud classifications", WW2010, [http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/cld/cldtyp/home.rxml], [10/3/02]
Latin grammar aid and wordlist, http://catholic.archives.nd.edu/cgi-bin/lookup.pl?stem=cirrus&ending=], [10/8/02]
"Cloudspeak", The Space Place, JPL - NASA, [http://spaceplace.jpl.nasa.gov/cloudsat_puz2.htm] [10/8/02]
Pidwirny, M.J., "(e) Cloud Formation Processes", Introduction to Hydrology, Fundamentals of Physical Geography, [http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/8e.html] [10/3/02]
"Front structure", Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment, [http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/eae/english.html], [10/8/02]
"High pressure centers", WW2010, [http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/prs/hghdef.rxml] [10/4/02]
"Low pressure centers", WW2010, [http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/prs/lwdef.rxml] [10/4/02]
"Beaufort scale", encyclopedia of the atmospheric environment, [http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/eae/english.html] [10/10/02]
"Beaufort wind scale", The Disaster Center, [http://www.disastercenter.com/convert.htm] [10/10/02]
NOAA's Top Global Weather, Water and Climate Events of the 20th Century, NOAA Backgrounder, [http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories/images/global.pdf]
NOAA's Top Global Weather, Water and Climate Events of the 20th Century, NOAA Backgrounder, [http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories/images/global.pdf]
NOAA's Top U.S. Weather, Water and Climate Events of the 20th Century, NOAA Backgrounder, [http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories/images/usafactsheet.pdf]
"Memorable gulf coast hurricanes of the 20th century", Weatherpost, Washington Post.com, [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/weather/hurricane/info/histhurr.htm]

Unit 2 -- Earth's Water

How stuff works, question of the day, [http://www.howstuffworks.com/question157.htm]
Ruddiman, p27.
Ocean Planet Homepage, Educational Materials, "Oceanographic Facts", [http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/education_oceanographic_facts.html] [10/1/02]
"End irrigation subsidies and reward conservation..., Cornell University Science News, Jan 20, 1997, [http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Jan97/water.hrs.html] [10/1/02]

Unit 3 --Earth's Systems

"Greenhouse Gas Concentrations", Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment, Global Warming Student Guide, ARIC web site, [http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/eae/Global_Warming/Older/Concentrations.html] [6/11/03]
Blasing, T.J., Jones, S., "Current Greenhouse Gas Concentrations: updated October 2002", Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center web site, [http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html] [ 6/11/03]
"Ice caps in Africa, tropical South America likely to disappear within 15 years", Research News, 2/18/01, Ohio State University, [http:/www.acs.ohio-state.edu/units/research/archive/glacgone.htm] [6/11/03]
"Himlayan ice reveals climate warming, catastrophic drought', Research News, 9/14/00, Ohio State University, [http://www.osu.edu/units/research/archive/monsoon.htm] [6/11/03]
IPCC pp 40-41
Davis, N., Permafrost: a guide to frozen ground in transition. University of Alaska, 2001, 351 pp.
Ruddiman, p311.
"Observed Changes in Sea Level", Section B.4, Technical Summary, Working Group 1: The Scientific Basis, Climate Change 2001, IPCC.
Norris, et al., "Polar Bears at Risk", May 2002, WWF Status Report, WWF, 28 pp.
Jenni, L., Kery, Marc. "Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change..." Proc. R. Soc. Lond (2003) 270, 1467-1471.
National Assessment Synthesis Team, "US National Assesment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, Educational Resources Paper: Alaska, Forests, Environmental Impact" US Climate Change Science Program, US Global Change Research Program, 2000, [8/28/03] [http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/nacc/education/alaska/ak-edu-5.htm#Environmental%20Impacts]
National Assessment Synthesis Team, "US National Assesment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, Educational Resources Paper: Alaska, Forests, Environmental Impact" US Climate Change Science Program, US Global Change Research Program, 2000, [8/28/03] [http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/nacc/education/alaska/ak-edu-5.htm#Environmental%20Impacts]
"Terrestrial ecoregions", Wild World, Nationalgeographic.com, [http://www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial_aa.html] [6/27/03]
Bailey, G., "Description of the ecoregions of the United States", Ecosystem domains, USDA Forest Service, March 1995, [http://www.fs.fed.us/colorimagemap/ecoreg1_provinces.html#Top] [6/27/03]
"Coastal Venezuelan Montane Forests", The Global 200, WWF [http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/ecoregions/global200/pages/regions/region041.htm]
Ruddiman, Earth's Climate, p.3, Freeman, 465 pp.
the whole atmosphere section: reviewed by/discussed with Kenneth Sassen, Atmospheric Sciences, February 19, 2003.
atmosphere section, esp instrumentation discussed with Glenn Shaw, February 21, 2003
Global Distribution and Character of Clouds, Cloud climatology, Goddard Institute for Space Studies web page, [http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/intro/rossow_01/distrib.html] [11/4/02]
"Science", Aqua website, [http://eos-pm.gsfc.nasa.gov] [12/2/02]
Shaw, G.E., Clouds and climate change, Global change instruction program, University Science Books, 1995, 21pp.
Shaw
Phillips, T., Barry, P.L. "Clouds in the Greenhouse", Science@NASA, April 22, 2002, [http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/22apr_ceres.htm] [1/24/02]
"Atmospheric aerosols", Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment, ARIC website, [http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/eae/english.html] [11/5/02]
"Volcanoes and global climate change", NASA Facts, The Earth science enterprise series, Goddard Space Flight Center, May 1998, NF-220. [http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/viewrecord?19588]
"Black carbon contributes to droughts and floods in China", Top Story, Goddard Space Flight Center, [http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/20020822blackcarbon.html] [11/20/02]"
"Acid Rain", Clean Air Markets - Environmental Issues, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency web site, [http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/acidrain/], [11/20/02]
Miller, R., Tegen, I., "Desert dust, dust storms and climate", Goddard Institute for Space Studies web site [http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/intro/miller_01/] [12/02/02]
Shaw, G., "Arctic Haze",__________, pp 155-159, Elsevier, 2002?
"studying atmosphere" section reviewed by Richard Collins.
Clouds & climate, Environmental technology laboratory, NOAA [http://www.etl.noaa.gov/eo/notes/clouds_and_climate.html], [11/4/02]
Discussion with Richard Collins, Geophysical Institute, 2/7/03. Ibid.
Herman, D., "Aircraft Aerosol Probes", Aerosol Physics, Princeton University, [http://www.princeton.edu/~lrussell/intro.html] [1/16/09]
Mizrahi, A., "Three wavelength integrating nephelometer", Aerosol Physics, Princeton University, [http://www.princeton.edu/~lrussell/neph.html] [1/16/09]
Earth Science Sentinels, Goddard Space Flight Center Web site, [http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/earth/sentinel/earthsen.htm] [11/20/02]
"GOES-8 (or GOES-East) is positioned at 75 W longitude and the equator, while GOES-10 (or GOES-West) is positioned at 135 W longitude and the equator." "NOAA's Geostationary and Polar-Orbiting Weather Satellites", NOAASIS, [http://noaasis.noaa.gov/NOAASIS/ml/genlsatl.html] [12/2/02]
"Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission", NASA Facts Online, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Web Site, [http://pao.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/service/gallery/fact_sheets/earthsci/trmm.htm] [11/20/02]
[http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/TRMM/Anim/fullearthorbit.mov]
"What are Aerosols", "Changing Global Cloudiness", Terra: the EOS Flagship web site, [http://terra.nasa.gov/About/] [11/20/02]
[http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/viewrecord?134]
[http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov:81/Library/Aqua/Anim/aqua_orbit.mov]
"GOES-8 (or GOES-East) is positioned at 75 W longitude and the equator, while GOES-10 (or GOES-West) is positioned at 135 W longitude and the equator." "NOAA's Geostationary and Polar-Orbiting Weather Satellites", NOAASIS, [http://noaasis.noaa.gov/NOAASIS/ml/genlsatl.html] [12/2/02]
Feldman, "Forecast: moderate coastal climates, variable temperatures inland", Oceans & Climate, Ocean Planet Exhibit, Smithsonian/SeaWIFS, [http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/oceanography_currents_4.html]
"The roles of the ocean in climate change", NASA Facts, The Earth Science Enterprise Series, Goddard Space Flight Center, June 1999, FS-1999-06-026-GSFC.
Ruddiman, p. 23
Ruddiman, p.39
Reed, D., "Conveyor Belt", Lab Exercise, Marine Geology. San Jose State University, Geology Department. [http://geosun1.sjsu.edu/~dreed/130/lab10/30.html] [1/14/03]
Gagosian, R.B., "Triggering Abrupt Climate Change: Can global warming cause an 'Ice Age'?", What's New?, Woods Hold Oceanographic Institute Web Site, [http://www.whoi.edu/home/about/whatsnew_abruptclimate.html], [1/14/03]
"Great Ocean Conveyor infoburst", Blue Planet infobursts, Blue Planet Challenge: a natural history of the oceans Website, BBC, [http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/blueplanet/travel/explore.shtml] [1/14/03]
Feldman, G.C., "Ocean Currents: we all go with the flow", Ocean Science, Ocean Planet Exhibit, Smithsonian/SeaWIFS, [http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/oceanography_currents_1.html] [1/7/03]
Ruddiman, p. 27
"Polar ice", The Earth Science Enterprise Series, NASA Facts, Goddard Space Flight Center, April 1998, NF-212.
Ruddiman, p. 23
Pidwirny, "Biosphere", Glossary, M.J. Fundamentals of Physical Geography, Okanagan University College, [http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/physgeoglos/b.html], [1/7/03]

Unit 4 -- Changes Over Time

Alaska climate data is from the Alaska Climate Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute.
Beringia plants selection reviewed by Dr. Dale Guthrie, Paleocologist, and Allen Batten, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
Animal info unless otherwise noted: Web page http://www.state.ak.us/local/akpages/FISH.GAME/notebook/notehome.htm Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series.
Animals selection discussed with Dr. Dale Guthrie, professor emeritus, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
Modern steppe from "African Forest Elephant " by E. Benders-Hyde. Web Pagehttp://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/rnfrst_animal_page.htm
"The geologic time scale", USGS Web Page, "Volcano, Hydrologic Hazards, Features, and Terminology",http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/geo_time_scale.html
Steppes and glaciers based on Adams J.M. & Faure H. (1997) (ed.s), QEN members. Review and Atlas of Palaeovegetation: Preliminary land ecosystem maps of the world since the Last Glacial Maximum. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, USA
"Continental climate definition entry", Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment, [http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/eae/Climate/Older/Continental_Climate.html], [visited 07/19/02]
numbers (-50F, 53F) from "Beetles contribute to Beringia study", Research of Daniil Berman, Informnauka: Russian Science News Archives, Online, [http://www.informnauka.ru/eng/2001/2001-08-10-0291_e.htm], [07/17/02]
"Chemistry and Life - XXI century": 107005 Moscow, Lefortovskiy per., 8
Redfern, R. Origins: the evolution of continents, oceans and life., p277, University of OK press, 2000, 360pp.
Hoffecker, JF, Powers, WR, Goebel, T. "The colonization of Beringia and the peopling of the new world", Science, v.259,January 1, 1993, pp46-53,
Palynological Data, Atlas of Beringia Home Page, [http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/parcs/atlas/beringia/inf_veg.html], [07/22/02]
Bliss, LC, Richards, JH, "Present-day arctic vegetation and ecosystems as a predictive tool for the arctic-steppe mammoth biome", pp241-257, Paleoecology of Beringia, eds. Hopkins, DM, Matthews, JV Jr., Schweger, CE, Young SB. Academic, 1982, 489.
Discussion with R.Dale Guthrie regarding typical plants of mammoth-steppe, August 2002
"Caiggluq - Arctic Wormwood", Edible plants of Hooper Bay, [http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/Marshall/edibleplants/CAIGGLUQ.html] [07/23/02]
"Sedge Family", Flowers of Scammon Bay, Alaska Native Knowledge network, Marshall cultural atlas, [http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/Marshall/flowers/SedgeFamily.html],[07/23/02]
Guthrie, p.203.
Viereck, L.A., Johnston, W.F., "Black Spruce", Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry Web site, [http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/picea/mariana.htm] [9/11/02]
Guthrie, p202.
Nienstaedt, H., Zasada, J.C., "White Spruce", Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry Web site, [http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/picea/glauca.htm]
"White Spruce", BCAdventure.Com,[http://www.bcadventure.com/adventure/wilderness/forest/whitespruce.htm]
Harris, A.S., "Sitka Spruce", Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry Web site, [http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/picea/sitchensis.htm]
"Sitka Spruce", BCAdventure.com, [http://www.bcadventure.com/adventure/wilderness/forest/sitka.htm], [9/11/02]
[http://www.bcadventure.com/adventure/wilderness/forest/paperbir.htm]
Viereck, E.g., Alaska's Wilderness Medicines, "Birch", [http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/viereck/viereckbirch.html], [9/11/02]
"Dwarf Fireweed", Alyeska Pipeline Photo library, [http://www.alyeska-pipe.com/Photolibrary/DwarfFireweed.html], [9/11/02]
"Edible Useful Plants of Scammon Bay", [http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/Marshall/ediblescammonbay/Cillkaq.html], [9/11/02]
"Fireweed", Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Plants & Animals, [http://www.nps.gov/bela/html/fireweed.htm], [9/11/02]
Woodward, S.L. "The Virtual Geography Department Project", "Taiga", [http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/taiga/taiga.html] [9/11/02]
Canadian Forest Service Pacific Forestry Centre Web Page, "Taiga Plains", [http://www.pfc.forestry.ca/canforest/canf/taiga1_e.html] [9/11/02]
S.L. "The Virtual Geography Department Project", "Arctic Tundra", [http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tundra/tundra.html];
Anderson, E., "Who's who in the Pleistocene: a mammalian bestiary", Quaternary Extinctions, p61
"Yukon Beringia Interpretive Center" Web page, Research Notes [http://www.beringia.com/02/02maina.html], [visited 07/15/02]
Ultimate Ungulate Web Page, Artiodactyla: Antilopinae: Saiga tartaricus, [http://www.ultimateungulate.com/saiga.html], [9/10/02]
Guthrie, p33.
Guthrie, p 93.
"American Lion", Return to the ice age: the La Brea exploration guide [http://www.tarpits.org/education/guide/flora/lion.html] [07/23/02]
Guthrie, p93.
"Yukon Beringia Interpretive Center" Web page, Research Notes: American Lion, [http://www.beringia.com/02/02maina5.html], [9/10/02]
Guthrie, p.289.
"Yukon Beringia Interpretive Center" Web page, Research Notes, "North American Short-Faced Bear"[ http://www.beringia.com/02/02maina4.html], [visited 07/15/02]
Rozell, N., Alaska Science Forum, "Reconstructing the Life of an Extinct Bear", Article #1380, March 18, 1998, [http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF13/1380.html], [9/10/02].

Vartanyan, S.L.,Arslanov, Kh.A., Tertychnaya, T.V., Chernov, S.B., "Radiocarbon dating evidence for mammoths on Wrangel Island, Arctic Ocean, until 2000 B.C.", Radiocarbon, No. 1: Vol 37, 1995, pp.1-6.
Strong, W.D., "North American indian traditions suggesting a knowledge of the mammoth", American Anthropologist, v.36, 1934, pp 81-88.
Strong, p83.
cited by Strong, W.D., North American Charlevoix, P.F.X.de. Journal d'un voyage fait par ordre du roi dans L'Amerique Septentrionale. Paris, 187, 1744.
Strong, p86.
Strong, pp 83-84.
Guthrie, 262-263
Harington, C.R. , "Helmeted Muskox",Yukon Beringia Interpretive Center, Research Notes [http://www.beringia.com/02/02maina13.html], [9/11/02]
Huffman, B., UltimateUngulate.com, [http://www.ultimateungulate.com/muskox.html], [9/11/02]
Williams, M., et al, Quaternary Environments, p.24, Arnold, 1998, 329pp.
Ruddiman, William F., Earth's climate past and future, p277, Freeman, 2001, 465pp
Guthrie, R.D., Frozen Fauna of the Mammoth Steppe: the story of Blue Babe,. P 51, Chicago, 1990, 323 pp.
Blue Planet Biomes, "Steppe Biome",[http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/steppe.htm] [visited 8/14/02]
"The geologic time scale", USGS Web Page, "Volcano, Hydrologic Hazards, Features, and Terminology", [http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/geo_time_scale.html], [9/12/02]
"The penultimate interglacial period", A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming, NOAA website, [http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/globalwarming/interglacial.html], [9/12/02]

Unit 5 -- Measuring Change

Williams, M. et al. Quaternary Environments.Chps 3,5, Arnold, 1993, 329 pp.
Petit, J.R., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, J. Jouzel, G. Delaygue, N.I. Barkov, and V.M. Kotlyakov. 2000. Historical isotopic temperature record from the Vostok ice core. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change.Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.
Mandia, S., "Influence of dramatic climate shifts on European Civilizations: The Rise and fall of the Vikings and the Little Ice Age", SUNY Suffolk. [http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/lia/] [2/19/03'
[http://intacom.com/ldn/01_chronicles/00010_frost_fairs.htm]
Martinez, L. "A guide to dendrochronology for educators", Laboratory of tree ring research, University of Arizona, [http://tree.ltrr.arizona.edu/lorim/lori.html] [3/4/03]
Ruddiman, WF, Earth's climate: past and future, pp 361-364, Freeman, 2001, 465 pp.
Miller, L. "The ancient bristlecone pine", [http://www.sonic.net/bristlecone/home.html] [3/4/03]
Martinez, L."Crossdating - the basic principle of dendrochronology", "A guide to dendrochronology for educators", Laboratory of tree ring research, University of Arizona, [http://tree.ltrr.arizona.edu/lorim/lori.html] [3/4/03]
Stahle, DW, et al. "The Lost Colony and Jamestown Droughts", p564, Science, v280, 4/24/98.
Stahle, DW, "Climatology: Lessons from the past and the reality of global warming", Web Feature, Unearthing Secret America, Scientific American Frontiers, [], [3/4/03]
Dawson, A.G. Ice age earth: late quaternary geology and climate, pp6-7, Routledge, 1996, pp293.
Rozell, N. "Tiny creatures give clue to past climate, Alaska Science Forum, Article #1486, Online, [http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF14/1486.html], [viewed 07/18/02].
Ruddiman, pp150-154
Dawson, A.G. Ice age earth: late quaternary geology and climate, pp6-7, Routledge, 1996, pp293.
Graedel, T.E., Crutzen, P.J., Atmosphere, climate, and change, p67, Scientific American Library, 1997, pp197.
Dawson, 16
Williams, M. et al. Quaternary Environments.Chps 3,5, Arnold, 1993, 329 pp.
Petit, J.R., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, J. Jouzel, G. Delaygue, N.I. Barkov, and V.M. Kotlyakov. 2000. Historical isotopic temperature record from the Vostok ice core. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change.Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.
Williams, M. et al. Quaternary Environments.Chps 3,5, Arnold, 1993, 329 pp.
Petit, J.R., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, J. Jouzel, G. Delaygue, N.I. Barkov, and V.M. Kotlyakov. 2000. Historical isotopic temperature record from the Vostok ice core. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change.Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.
"Seasons and the Earth's orbit - Milankovitch cycles", Astronomical application department, US Naval Observatory [http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/seasons_orbit.html], [2/6/03]
"Astronomical theory of climate change", Orbital variations and Milankovitch theory, NOAA Paleoclimatology program, [ www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/milankovitch.html] [2/7/03]
Dawson, p237
"Earth at perihelion", NASA News, January 4, 2001, [http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2001/ast04jan_1.htm] [2/17/03]
"Interactive Investigation of the Shapes of Planetary Orbits", Interactive Science Activities on the Web, Physics Department, Bridgewater College, [http://www.bridgewater.edu/departments/physics/ISAW/PlanetOrbMain.html] [2/17/03]
"Seasons and the Earth's orbit - Milankovitch cycles", Astronomical application department, US Naval Observatory [http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/seasons_orbit.html], [2/6/03]
"Astronomical theory of climate change", Orbital variations and Milankovitch theory, NOAA Paleoclimatology program, [ www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/milankovitch.html] [2/7/03]
"Milutin Milankovitch", On the shoulders of giants, Earth Observatory, NASA, [http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Giants/Milankovitch/]
"Seasons and the Earth's orbit - Milankovitch cycles", Astronomical application department, US Naval Observatory [http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/seasons_orbit.html], [2/6/03]
"Astronomical theory of climate change", Orbital variations and Milankovitch theory, NOAA Paleoclimatology program, [ www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/milankovitch.html] [2/7/03]
Dawson, 237
"Seasons and the Earth's orbit - Milankovitch cycles", Astronomical application department, US Naval Observatory [http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/seasons_orbit.html], [2/6/03]
"Astronomical theory of climate change", Orbital variations and Milankovitch theory, NOAA Paleoclimatology program, [ www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/milankovitch.html] [2/7/03]
"Milutin Milankovitch", On the shoulders of giants, Earth Observatory, NASA, [http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Giants/Milankovitch/]
Dawson, pp237-238
"Orbital variations", "Milutin Milankovitch", On the shoulders of giants, Earth Observatory, NASA, [http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Giants/Milankovitch/milankovitch_2.html] [2/17/03]
"Seasons and the Earth's orbit - Milankovitch cycles", Astronomical application department, US Naval Observatory [http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/seasons_orbit.html], [2/6/03]
"Astronomical theory of climate change", Orbital variations and Milankovitch theory, NOAA Paleoclimatology program, [ www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/milankovitch.html] [2/7/03]
Dawson, pp239-240.
Williams, M. et al. Quaternary Environments. pp 74-106, Arnold, 1993, 329 pp.
"Milutin Milankovitch", On the shoulders of giants, Earth Observatory, NASA, [http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Giants/Milankovitch/]
"The Ice Ages", Paleo Slide Set, Education and Outreach, NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, [http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/slides/slideset/11/index.html] [2/18/03]
"Milutin Milankovitch", On the shoulders of giants, Earth Observatory, NASA, [http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Giants/Milankovitch/]
Howard, K., Aber, JS. "The man behind the theory", The Milankovitch Theory, Quaternary Geology ES767, Earth Science Department, Emporia State University, [http://www.emporia.edu/earthsci/student/howard2/milan.htm] [2/18/03]

Unit 6 -- Greenhouse Gases

Data courtesy Bruce Wielicki and Takmeng Wong, and the CERES Science Team at NASA Langley Research Center; Images courtesy Tom Bridgman, NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio, [http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/Images/ceres_globe.jpg] [10/30/02]
Houghton, J. Global Warming: the complete briefing, p 16 Cambridge, 1994, 251pp
Ruddiman, p. 21
"In Brief-The U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory", p 4, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs, EPA 430-F-02-008, April 2002. [http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/UniqueKeyLookup/RAMR5CZKVE/$File/ghgbrochure.pdf] [1/29/03]
Federal Department of the Environment - Climate Change Site (Belgium), Figures, How do people produce greenhouse gases?, [http://www.environment.fgov.be/Root/tasks/atmosphere/klim/set_en.htm], [visited 07/16/02]
Houghton, p16.
Table 6: comparison of the influence of the three major greenhouse gases. Overview, Figures, Fed, dept environm.[http://www.environment.fgov.be/Root/tasks/atmosphere/klim/set_en.htm][07/24/02]
"Executive Summary: Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1999", April 2001, EPA 236-R-01-001, p. 4.
"Svante Arrhenius", On the shoulders of giants, Reference, NASA Earth Observatory web site, [http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Giants/Arrhenius/], [1/30/03]
"Svante Arrhenius - Biography", Laureates, Chemistry,Nobel e-Museum, [http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/1903/arrhenius-bio.html] [1/30/03]
Waggoner, B., "The Carboniferous", University of California, Berkley, Museum of Paleontology web site, [http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/carboniferous/carboniferous.html] [1/30/03]
"The Planets", Solar system, NASA, [http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/features/planets/planetsfeat.html]
Davis, P., "Solar system bodies: Mercury", NASA Solar System Observation Page, http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/features/planets/mercury/mercury.html], [10/27/02]
"Venus Discoveries", Nasa Spacelink Web Site, [10/27/02], [http://spacelink.nasa.gov/NASA.Projects/Space.Science/Solar.System/Pioneer.Venus/Venus.Discoveries]
Catling, D., Mars Atmosphere Group, NASA Ames Research Center, [http://www-mgcm.arc.nasa.gov/mgcm/faq/thin_atm.html], [10/27/02]
"Jupiter's Interior and magnetosphere", Project Galileo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Web Site, [http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov/jupiter/interior.html], [10/27/02]
Stanley, D.,"Scientists discover anti-greenhouse effect on Titan", Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center Web Site, [http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/missions/status/r91-143][10/28/02]
"Uranus", Solar System Exploration, NASA Web site, [http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/features/planets/uranus/uranus.html]
Schombert, J., "Jovian Planets", University of Oregon, department of physics [http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~js/ast221/lectures/lec15.html][10/28/02]
"Pluto", Solar System Exploration, NASA Web site, [http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/features/planets/pluto/pluto.html] [10/28/02]

Unit 7 -- Computers and Climate

"Understanding color-infrared photographs and false-color composites", USGS Fact Sheet, FS-129-01, 12/2001, USGS web site, [4/28/03] [http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/factsheets/fs12901.html]
Imagine the Universe, Electromagnetic Spectrum: Introduction, Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center [http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/emspectrum.html] [5/13/03]
Oquilluk, WA, People of Kauwerak: legends of the northern Eskimo, "The Time Summer time did not come", Alaska Pacific University Press, 1973, 242 pp.
Sternlof, K. "Tree-ring evidence confirms Alaskan Inuit Saga of Climate Disaster", Earth Institute News, 2/10/00, The Earth Institute at Columbia University, [http://www.earthinstitute.columbia.edu/news/story3-4.html] [4/28/03]
Oquilluk, WA, People of Kauwerak: legends of the northern Eskimo, "The Time Summer time did not come", p65-67, Alaska Pacific University Press, 1973, 242 pp.
Meyer, G., "Using Excel to construct a very simple energy balance climate model for the Earth", Environmental Sciences 330, Fall 2002, University of New Mexico. [http://epswww.unm.edu/facstaff/gmeyer/envsc330/Ebalancemodel.htm] [4/24/03]
Meyer, G., "Using Excel to construct a very simple energy balance climate model for the Earth", Environmental Sciences 330, Fall 2002, University of New Mexico. [http://epswww.unm.edu/facstaff/gmeyer/envsc330/Ebalancemodel.htm] [4/24/03]

Unit 8 -- Climate Change Impacts

Unit reviewed by John E.Walsh -- University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA

ACIA, 2005.Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, 1042p.

ACIA Lead Authors
Jim Berner -- Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, USA
Terry V. Callaghan -- Abisko Scientific Research Station, Sweden, Sheffield Centre for Arctic Ecology, UK
Henry Huntington -- Huntington Consulting, USA
Arne Instanes -- Instanes Consulting Engineers, Norway
Glenn P. Juday -- University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA
Erland Kallen -- Stockholm University, Sweden
Vladimir M. Katts -- Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia
David R. Klein -- University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA
Harald Loeng -- Institute of Marine Research, Norway
Gordon McBean -- University of Western Ontario, Canada
James J. McCarthy -- Harvard University, USA
Mark Nuttall -- University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, University of Alberta, Canada
James D. Reist (to June 2002) -- Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada
Frederick J.Wrona (from June 2002) -- National Water Research Institute, Canada
Petteri Taalas (to March 2003) -- Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland
Aapo Tanskanen (from March 2003) -- Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland
Hjalmar Vilhjalmsson -- Marine Research Institute, Iceland
John E.Walsh -- University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA
Betsy Weatherhead -- University of Colorado at Boulder, US

=============================================

ILLUSTRATIONS

Index, source & credits - Photograph. Cloud with added lightning. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Weather - 1936 Oklahoma dust storm. Arthur Rothstein.
Earth's Weather - Bowhead whaling boat at Barrow, Alaska. - U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Donna Dewhurst.
Earth's Weather - Coast Guard surf boat. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Cyclone. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Cyclone Olivia in Western Australia. - Emergency Management Australia.
Earth's Weather - Cyclone Olivia - Western Australia - Australian Government.
Earth's Weather - Earth in true color. - NASA.
Earth's Weather - House destroyed by Hurricane Katrina (2005). - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - House flooding. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Hurricane Adrian. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Hurricane Charlie. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Hurricane Charlie. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Hurricane Charlie. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Hurricane Charlie. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Hurricane Frances. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Hurricane Guillermo video. - NASA.
Earth's Weather - Hurricane Isabell 2003. - NASA / NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Hurricane Isabell 2003. - NASA / NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Hurricane. - NASA / NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Illustration. Boeing 757 - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Weather - Illustration. Cumulus cloud.
Earth's Weather - Illustration. Earth mountains, water and sky - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Illustration. Noctilucent clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Illustration. Noctilucent clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute. Manning.
Earth's Weather - Illustration. Satellite - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Weather - Illustration. Space Shuttle - NASA.
Earth's Weather - Lightning. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Lightning. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Lightning. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Lightning. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Lightning. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Lightning. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Oklahoma drought, 1936. - U.S. Library of Congress. Arthur Rothstein.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Altocumulus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Altocumulus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Altocumulus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Altocumulus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Altocumulus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Altocumulus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cirrus clouds - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cirrus clouds - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cirrus clouds - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cirrus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cirrus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cirrus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cirrus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cirrus clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cirrus clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cirrus clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Clouds - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Contrails clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Contrails clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute. Jeff Penderson V.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Contrails clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute. Jeff Penderson V.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Contrails clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute. Jeff Penderson V.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cumulonimbus clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cumulus clouds - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cumulus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cumulus clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cumulus clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cumulus clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cumulus clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Cumulus clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. F-14D Tomcat military aircraft - Grummand.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Lenticular clouds - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Lenticular clouds - NPS.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Lenticular clouds - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Lenticular clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute. Trabant.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Lenticular clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute. Trabant.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Lenticular clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute. Trabant.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Lenticular clouds - UAF Geophysical Institute. Trabant.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. nimbostratus clouds
Earth's Weather - Photograph. River. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Shore erosion - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Stratus clouds - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Stratus clouds - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Stratus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Stratus clouds - NOAA. Ralph F Kresge.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Weather balloon - NASA.
Earth's Weather - Photograph. Wind and trees - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Sea ice in the Beaufort Sea. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Ship in a stormy sea. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Ship in high seas. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Ship in high seas. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Ship in high seas. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Summer storm over cattails. - U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
Earth's Weather - Super Typhoon Chaba. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Supercell cloud.
Earth's Weather - Supercell illustration. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Supercell illustration. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Supercell. - NASA.
Earth's Weather - Supercell. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Supercell. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Supercell series of illustrations. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Weather - Tornado damage. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tornado damage. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tornado. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tornado. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tornado. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tornado. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tornado. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tornado. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tornado. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tornado. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tropical Cyclone 19P (Grace) . - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Tropical Cyclone Willy. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - TV weather map. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Water spout. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Water spout. - NOAA.
Earth's Weather - Whitecaps in the Beaufort Sea. - U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
Earth's Weather - Wind generators. - U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
Earth's Weather - Wind mill and rainbow. - BLM.
Earth's Weather - Wind surfing in Southeast Alaska. - (C) Alaska Division of Tourism.
Earth's Water - Changing phases of water. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Water - Changing phases of water. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Jeff Penderson V.
Earth's Water - Condensation in cloud. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Water - Earth.
Earth's Water - Glacier. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Water - Illustration of landscape, mountains and water. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Water - Moving molecules in water. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Water - Precipitation in cloud. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Water - Thermometer. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Eric Muehling.
Earth's Water - Transpiration. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Systems - 2D ocean conveyor belt. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Systems - 3D ocean conveyor belt. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Systems - Alaska map. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - ANWR. - U.S. Department of the Interior.
Earth's Systems - Biosphere. Birds. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Biosphere. Dolphins. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Biosphere. Flowers. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Biosphere. Orangutan. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Biosphere. Triaxon. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Coal power plant.
Earth's Systems - Cryosphere. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Cryosphere. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Dinosaurs. - Karen Carr. Karen Carr.
Earth's Systems - Dog mushing. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Dried babmoo coral. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Earth globe.
Earth's Systems - Earth ocean temperatures. - Space Science and Engineering Center / U of Wisconsin-Madison.
Earth's Systems - Earth. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Systems - Earth's systems. Composite photo. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Factory smog. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Systems - Factory smog. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Systems - Fish drying. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Glacier. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Black carbon. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Desert dust. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Dirt. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Fire soot. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Ocean currents in 3-D. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Ocean. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Sea ice. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Sea salt. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration sequence. Volcano. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Slash and burn sequence. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Snow. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Illustration. Tundra. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Landscape. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Lithosphere. Kauai Valley. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Eric Muehling.
Earth's Systems - Lithosphere. Mountains. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - North America - NASA.
Earth's Systems - Ocean waves. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Snow covered trees. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Earth's Systems - Students holding wind socks. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Systems - Sunset. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Systems - Sunset. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Earth's Systems - Waves. - NOAA.
Earth's Systems - Weather patterns. - NOAA.
Changes Over Time - Birch bark - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Changes Over Time - Birch forest. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Changes Over Time - Cave art. Keiko Akasofu.
Changes Over Time - Fireweed.
Changes Over Time - Fossil Bones Game
Changes Over Time - Habitat Game
Changes Over Time - Illustration. Beringia flooding sequence. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Changes Over Time - Illustration. Beringia ice sheets sequence. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Changes Over Time - Illustration. Beringia summer. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Changes Over Time - Illustration. Beringia vegetation sequence. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Changes Over Time - Illustration. Beringia winter. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Changes Over Time - Illustration. Geologic timeline. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Keiko Akasofu.
Changes Over Time - Illustration. Winter tundra and mammouth. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Changes Over Time - Snow and trees. - UCAR. Deborah Manning.
Changes Over Time - Spruce forest. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Changes Over Time - Taiga
Changes Over Time - Tundra
Changes Over Time - Tundra photo. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Jeff Peterson V.
Measuring Change - Evergreen trees. - NOAA.
Measuring Change - Excavation in Alaska. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Measuring Change - Forams. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Measuring Change - Forams. - US Antarctic Program.
Measuring Change - Ice core. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Measuring Change - Ice cores. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Measuring Change - Ice cores. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Measuring Change - Ice cores. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Hajo Eicken.
Measuring Change - Ice coring. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Kyle Jefferies.
Measuring Change - Opening screen - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Measuring Change - Person walking on glacier. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Measuring Change - Pollen photographs. - Civil Engineering and Physical Sciences, La Trobe University.
Measuring Change - Satellite view of a dust storm. - NASA.
Measuring Change - Snow layers animation. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Measuring Change - Tree coring. - USGS.
Measuring Change - - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Measuring Change - Volcanic glass. - USGS.
Greenhouse Gases - Aerial crop spraying. - USGS.
Greenhouse Gases - Car exhaust. - South Ayrshire Council, UK.
Greenhouse Gases - Carbon Quiz, sources of CO2. - UAF Geophysical Institute and NOAA..
Greenhouse Gases - Cement production. - USGS.
Greenhouse Gases - Clouds. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Greenhouse Gases - Cows.
Greenhouse Gases - Crop spraying. - USGS.
Greenhouse Gases - Decomposing forest. - Canadian Forest Service.
Greenhouse Gases - Decomposing garbage.
Greenhouse Gases - Earth. - NASA.
Greenhouse Gases - Earth satellite view. - NASA.
Greenhouse Gases - Earth's atmosphere and greenhouse effect. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Greenhouse Gases - Greenhouse effect. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Greenhouse Gases - Landscape for carbon cycle. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Greenhouse Gases - Muskoxen. - UAF.
Greenhouse Gases - Ocean floor. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Greenhouse Gases - Soils profile. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Greenhouse Gases - Solar system planets. - NASA.
Computers and Climate - bark beetle
Computers and Climate - Climate change predicted in spinning globe.
Computers and Climate - Computer and circuit board. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Computers and Climate - Forest fire. - Alaska Fire Service. John McColgan.
Computers and Climate - Model of Earth's polar icecap. - NOAA.
Computers and Climate - Muir Glacier 100 years ago and today. - NASA.
Computers and Climate - Permafrost illustration. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Computers and Climate - Polar bears on ice. - NOAA.
Computers and Climate - Shishmaref erosion photographs. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Computers and Climate - Shrub density - Arctic Research Consortium of the United States.
Computers and Climate - Shrubs change over time.
Computers and Climate - Sled dogs. - NOAA.
Computers and Climate - Smoke stacks. - NASA.
Computers and Climate - Spruce bark beetle researchers. - U.S. Fish and wildlife Service - Alaska.
Computers and Climate - Spruce forest. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Computers and Climate - Supercomputer. - Earth Simulator Center.
Computers and Climate - Waterfowl. - NOAA.
Impacts - Aerial view of Teller, Alaska. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Vicci Daniels.
Impacts - Alaska native children. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Vicci Daniels.
Impacts - Aleutian Canada geese goslings. - Alaska Maritime Refuge Wildlife. Steve Ebbert.
Impacts - All terrain vehicles. - State of Alaska. Vicki Daniels.
Impacts - Aspen leaf miner larvae. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Ned Rozell.
Impacts - ATVs used for village travel. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Vicci Daniels.
Impacts - Bath tub represents STELLA model. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Eric Muehling.
Impacts - Boreal forest. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Ned Rozell.
Impacts - Canada geese in a pond. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Eric Muehling.
Impacts - Canada geese in flight. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Eric Muehling.
Impacts - Canada goose in flight. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Eric Muehling.
Impacts - Caribou in Wrangell - St. Elias National Park and Preserve.
Impacts - Caribou. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Coastal water level increases. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Impacts - Dog mushing. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Dog sledding. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Dog sledding. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Drying fish. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Fish camp. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Fish wheel. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Fishing. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Forest fire. - US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Impacts - Glacier - NASA.
Impacts - Glacier. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Greenland ice sheet descending into a moulin. Roger J Braithwaite.
Impacts - Hanging salmon. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Hunters in a boat. - Alaska Digital Historical Collection.
Impacts - Hunters in a boat. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Impacts - Hunters on ice. - Alaska Digital Historical Collection.
Impacts - Ice fishing. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Ice road. - U.S. Department of Energy.
Impacts - Lynx. - Kenai National Wildlife Refuge staff.
Impacts - Migrating caribou. - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Impacts - Moose. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Ned Rozell.
Impacts - Native Elder. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Northern fur seals. - NOAA.
Impacts - Opening screen. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Impacts - Partial solar eclipse. - NASA.
Impacts - Permafrost and ice mound. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Impacts - Permafrost damage to house. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Impacts - Permafrost damage to road. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Impacts - Permafrost house.
Impacts - Permafrost near Kotzebue, Alaska. - University of Alaska. Brendan P. Kelly.
Impacts - Permafrost. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Impacts - Photograph from under the sea ice. - NOAA. Dale Chayes.
Impacts - Photograph from under the sea ice. - NOAA. Elizabeth Calvert.
Impacts - Polar bear on ice. - NOAA.
Impacts - Polar bear on sea ice. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Polar map with permafrost lines. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Impacts - Polar map with sea ice extent. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Impacts - Polar view of Earth. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Impacts - Prudhoe Bay drilling. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Railroad track damaged by permafrost. - Alaska Sea Grant.
Impacts - Sea ice. - NASA.
Impacts - Seal in breathing hole. - NOAA.
Impacts - Seals. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Ship and sea ice. - NOAA.
Impacts - Shore erosion. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Impacts - Snowmobile. - UAF Geophysical Institute. Deborah Manning.
Impacts - Three caribou. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Track vehicle crossing tundra. - U.S. Fish and Wildlife.
Impacts - Track vehicles cross the tundra. - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Impacts - Traffic and sunset. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Impacts - Two caribou. - NASA.
Impacts - Vegetation changes. - UAF Geophysical Institute.
Impacts - Walrus. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Water fowl. - State of Alaska.
Impacts - Wolf. - US Fish and Wildlife.